Sir Richard Eyre directs the production, which will feature design by Tony Award winner Tim Hatley. Additional casting and creative team will be announced shortly.
Set in the 1960s, Quartermaine's Terms explores several years in the life of St. John Quartermaine, a kind but hopeless teacher at an English language school for foreigners..
Prior to its West End run, the production will play the Theatre Royal Brighton, January 8-12 and the Theatre Royal Bath, January 14-19.
Atkinson was most recently seen in London as Fagin in Oliver!. He is best known for his television performances as Mr. Bean and Blackadder.